Archive for the ‘Europa’ Tag

What if There was Life on Other Worlds?   19 comments

The UN Outer Space Treaty and Planetary Protection

What is Planetary Protection?

Planetary protection refers to ‘interplanetary contamination’ – protecting solar system bodies (i.e., planets, moons, comets, and asteroids) from ‘biological contamination’ by Earth organisms, (Forward contamination – the transfer ofviable organisms’ from Earth to another interplanetary body), and protecting Earth from the transmission of alien organisms, to Earth’s biosphere e.g. as a result of ‘extra-terrestrial sample-return missions.’ (Back contamination)

 

The Outer Space Treaty

Why is Planetary Protection Important?

Planetary protection is a directive code in the blueprint of an interplanetary assignment, and is critical for several important reasons:  

  • mirrors the unknown nature of the space environment 
  • to safeguard our ability to study other worlds in detail, in their natural conditions 
  • to prevent contamination that would make it difficult/impossible to find potential life on another world  
  • to ensure that we take judicious safety measures to shield Earth’s biosphere in case it does.  

The UN Outer Space Treaty and Planetary Protection

The legal basis for planetary protection is located in Article IX of the United Nations Outer Space Treaty ratified in 1967 by the US, USSR, and UK.

“Article IX: … States Parties to the Treaty shall pursue studies of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, and conduct exploration of them so as to avoid their harmful contamination and also adverse changes in the environment of the Earth resulting from the introduction of extra-terrestrial matter and, where necessary, shall adopt appropriate measures for this purpose.”

Requirements for Protecting Life on Other Bodies

heres-why-scientists-think-a-tiny-moon-of-jupiter-is-the-most-likely-place-to-find-alien-life

Planetary protection prerequisites for each mission and interplanetary body in focus are ascertained based on the scientific advice of the Space Studies Board, NASA or international policy guidelines.

Each mission is categorized according to:

  • Type of mission (e.g. flyby, orbiter, or lander)
  • Nature of its destination (e.g. a planet, moon, comet, or asteroid)
  • And the planetary bodies that may be discovered over the course of the mission (e.g. Mars and Europa).

Proposal to Increase Time-Scale for Planetary Protection

In the case of  Europa, the majority opinion was, that not only should Europa be kept it is not contamination-free during current times of exploration, but that it could well be scientifically important enough to warrant being kept in an un-touched and un-contaminated condition for future generations to benefit from studying too. 

“One consequence of this view is that Europa must be protected from contamination for an open-ended period, until it can be demonstrated that no ocean exists or that no organisms are present. Thus, we need to be concerned that over a time scale on the order of 10 million to 100 million years (an approximate age for the surface of Europa), any contaminating material is likely to be carried into the deep ice crust or into the underlying ocean.” 

(The minority opinion was that these protection measures are unnecessarily strong.)

But What About the Natives??!!

Europa and Alien Life

It is natural that we should want to explore worlds with the potential for life, and even to exploit them, but what if these worlds, such as Europa, do prove to have natives? There are different views on this subject. For example:

  • If the life is only microbial then there is no cause to worry about it. We should not let microbes interfere with potential colonisation.
  • It has its own ecosystem, and this should be left alone. However, if the long-term aim was to terraform Europa it would change the climate of the moon along with the rest of Europa.

Will we as egotistical humans decide, that despite knowing that this is a world that we have had no hand in creating, none-the-less that we should take measures to change it anyway? Or will we recognise our boundaries and appreciate that we have a unique standing in the cosmos, and therefore put aside our arrogance and leave untouched, a world, and possibly an eco-system, that we have had no hand in creating?

Europa’s Icewolf’s Personal Howl!

Red_Wolf_Creek_Inverted

My personal howl on this subject is that absolutely Europa needs to be protected from Earth contamination! We do not know the consequences of any potential contamination. And precautions should be taken so that accurate observations can be made regarding any life found on Europa. If we find life there, it will have its own ecosystem and we should leave it alone and allow it to be a nature reserve moon. We may even be able to find ways to improve its habitat to help its life to thrive in ways not yet possible for it on icy Europa. It may be possible to ring fence the inhabited areas to reduce human contact, but it seems to me that such action would serve only to damage Europa, and ultimately this moon needs to be left alone! 

As mentioned earlier, backward contamination by micro-organisms (e.g. bacteria, certain algae and fungi) from other worlds are also a risk, when carried back to Earth on probes. which could have catastrophic upshots for Earth dwellers. Our immune systems will not have any resistance to extra-terrestrial micro-organisms. Not only would our bodies be totally unable to fight them it is pretty much guaranteed that we would have no time and no opportunity to research the creation of the necessary vaccine. Therefore, it will be essential to have high-level, cutting-edge systems for filtering and highly advanced procedures in place.

What do YOU think?!!

europ_wolf (2) copy1B

Discovering beyond all doubt that alien life does exist would have big impacts on Earth.

  • Inevitably there would be changes to terrestrial science, technology, religion, politics and ecosystems as a result of contact with extra-terrestrial life, whether it be microbial or a technologically advanced civilisation.

Consequences for Society and Cultural Back-Lashes

Nobody will avoid the impact from the culture shock that would occur if we were to discover extra-terrestrial life, whatever form it might take. We would be forced to face the sudden reality that we were not a unique exception in the universe, which could cause a very serious back-lash in society as we know it. A culture shock of this nature could last for decades, possibly centuries. It would not only be ourselves affected in the deepest and most profound of ways but also our children and our children’s children. As we reach out to new, unexplored worlds with no real knowledge of what we might find there, exactly how the potential revelation of extra-terrestrial life and the impact on future generations is an issue that requires our consideration…

…NOW!!  

Sources: 

https://planetaryprotection.nasa.gov/overview 

https://www.state.gov/t/isn/5181.htm 

http://www.unoosa.org/pdf/publications/STSPACE11E.pdf   (SpaceTreaty PDF) 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planetary_protection 

www.space.com  (What Finding Alien Life Could Mean for Earth) 

www.wikipedia.com  (Potential Cultural Impact) 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Advertisements

Happy Easter from Europa :)   13 comments

 

 

17951902_917116658431444_4697399302308619837_n

 

 

 

New evidence from NASA indicates that the most likely places to find life beyond Earth are Jupiter’s moon Europa or Saturn’s moon Enceladus. They, like Earth, are both ocean worlds and in both therein are some of the key ingredients for life.

A wealth of hydrogen molecules in water plumes soaring from the ruptures in Enceladus’s icy surface, have been detected by the Cassini spacecraft. The vital chemical methane, could also be establishing itself in the ocean beneath the ice.

The elusive presence of a water plume erupting on the warmest part of Europa’s icy surface, which has a salty liquid ocean beneath it was shown by the Hubble Space Telescope. The ocean itself contains double the amount of water found in the oceans of Earth.

 

europ_wolf (2) copy1B

Europa could be the pick of the bunch for life-bearing within our own solar system outside of our homeworld. will launch In the 2020’s the Europa Clipper will be launched, and should arrive at Europa a few years later. It will be the first to explore an alien ocean and will also fly through the plume to collect data.

It will definitely be a first to discover Intergalactic Liver Cake – staple diet of Icewolves, and indeed most domestic canines Earth! The structure of the Liver Cake may differ slightly from much-loved Earthly treat, but the Europan version is just as mouthwatering and tasty to both lupine and canine alike 🙂 And what better time than Easter, the time of ressurection and new life, to discover tantsalising new life hopes on worlds not so very far from home?

 

 

 

 

 

 

Icewolf of course, did not go hunting any down without telling Clowie, the Pyrenean Mountain Dog…she would never dream of such indiscretion 😉 …. Never!

Image: Europa’s Icewolf 2017_ Europa’s Icewolf: Jupiter, seen from Europa.

 

Solar Eclipse News….The View From Europa!!   15 comments

 

 

Solar Eclipse 2015 – The View from Europa! Smile

     

 

                                            View from Europa

 

                    The view from Europa was somewhat better than the view from Earth…. that view was pretty rubbish Winking smile

 

             solar-eclipse-2015-from Europa      View from Europa 2_Solar Eclipse 2015

In fact the view from Earth left an awful lot to be desired….

                                              View from Earth-Rubbish!                          

 

                                              Eerie Solar Eclipse Light_from Earth

 

A slight change in the shade of grey might possibly have been considered an eerie solar eclipse light… And at least one or two pretty cool Wolfie Herr Selfies resulted from the moment of eerie lightness….and what might possibly have been considered a change in the wind direction…as to the predicted drop in temperature – given that it was already sub zero no shivering icewolf would have noticed the 3 degree difference.

 

                                                        Solar Eclipse Herr Wolfie Selfie!Solar Eclipse Herr Wolfie Selfie2!

 

The solar eclipse was also responsible for the “super-tide” –that afflicted UK, Earth – “the tide of the century!”.  The rare alignment of the Moon, Sun and Earth resulting in a giant gravitational pull on the sea. This created high tides leading to UK-wide flood warnings , It also led to the River Thames in London bursting its banks. Coastline flood warnings and typical cold, wet and windy British weather is now expected to last all week long Smile 

Full Wolf Moon–January 5th 2015   21 comments

howling-at-the-moon-hippotipus-dff_080723 

 

119453360_640Full Wolf Moon Registration Banner

The Wolf Moon rising at 17:15 – 5th January 2015, for the one and only time this New year, is the first full moon following the winter solstice. In a little touch of moon wolf magic the 2015 Wolf Moon also coincides with the arrival of Earth at the closest point to the sun that it is possible for it to reach in its orbit (perihelion).

Earth stands just 91.4 million miles from the sun, at this point and consequently the full moon burns brighter than even the Europan Ice Wolves on their frozen world of ice…

The Wolf Moon has also come to mark the start of a long year of stargazing.

January is the only month of the year when Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn can be viewed without a telescope. And if you look very carefully in the magic of the moonlight and maybe wish upon a star you may see the flash of the moon wolves of icy Europa…moon of Jupiter….if you’re really quiet you may here the call of the wolf-song across the star-ways of time and space…the moon-song of the star-born of Europa….

Happy New Year 2015 from the Ice-wolves of Europa!

Ultimate Wolfie Herr Selfies!   46 comments

Hazardous Days Of

Wolfie Herr Selfie Creations! Smile

“Freaked-out, Shock-Horror Wolfie Herr Selfie,” Life can be very Herr-y (Hairy) at times…The taking of a top-quality, prize winning  Wolfie Herr Selfie can be a truly herr-raising and frankly quite terrifying experience…. It frequently leads to the likes of the “Freaked-out, Shock-Horror Wolfie Herr Selfie,” is entirely the fault of the camera, and is totally impossible to correct with even the most sophisticated photo-editing software available Smile

“Underexposed, Green-eyed monster Wolfie Herr Selfie”On many inexplicable occasions there is no accounting for the behaviour of the camera’s wide variety of Exposure modes. The “Underexposed, Green-eyed monster Wolfie Herr Selfie” has become an increasingly common problem, particularly for DSLR camera owners. That said, if you’re smart enough to get to grips with one of these mind-blowingiy complex contraptions then you really ought to be smart enough to know better than to attempt a Wolfie Herr Selfie in the first place Winking smile

 “Herr Dryer-Distortion Extrordinaire Wolfie Herr Selfie,”It’s also very well advised to switch off the hair dryer during the Wolfie Herr Selfie taking session…Drying your hair with one hand whilst taking a Wolfie Herr Selfie just doesn’t work… All too often it leads to the “Herr Dryer-Distortion Extraordinaire Wolfie Herr Selfie,” and nobody really wants to be sporting the “Dragged through a hedge backwards” (UK saying for the benefit of the US and European viewers) look Smile

“Herr Wolfie Through the Looking Glass Wolfie Herr Selfie.” When attempting to take a semi-respectable Wolfie Herr Selfie it is generally best not to try taking it through a Europan Ice berg….it really isn’t a good look…and neither is the resulting “Tufty-eared, Sphereised Wolfie Herr Selfie…” just because you have a fancy camera sporting a massive, over-sized zoom lens doesn’t mean you have to let the camera create a “Herr Wolfie Through the Looking Glass Wolfie Herr Selfie.” Open-mouthed smile (Remember it’s always the fault of the camera when things go wrong; which of course they do – frequently… !)

“3-D Squashed-In Nose Wolfie Herr Selfie”How wrong a Wolfie Herr Selfie can go is, to a point, a matter of dubious personal opinion. For example some Selfie-takers may, questionably, be seriously impressed by their camera’s previously unknown ability to take Wolfie Herr Selfies in 3-D… The “3-D Squashed-In Nose Wolfie Herr Selfie” certainly has some unique qualities all of its own. Naturally this is on the equally questionable assumption that you haven’t in fact created a 3-D printed Icewolf on the quiet, on your very own, very secret 3-D Wolfie Printing machine….

“Solarised, Black Wolf of Mars Wolfie Herr Selfie”Even then things can still go a little “pear-shaped” (“horribly wrong” for those of European and US leanings 😉 ) Of course if you like the “Solarised, Black Wolf of Mars Wolfie Herr Selfie” look then you may well be thrilled and highly impressed by the above Wolfie Herr Selfie… otherwise you may find yourself glaring furiously into the camera lens wondering disconcertedly how, exactly, the Selfie Camera or possibly your 3-D Wolfie Printer, yet again took matters into its own settings, hands, paws… whatever!!!

“Snowy Sumi Super Wolfie Herr Selfie”Ultimately it’s probably best advised to give up on technology altogether when it comes to creating an effective Wolfie Herr Selfie…For those gifted characters blessed with the ability to exercise artistic creativity with paints and brushes a very pretty “Snowy Sumi Super Wolfie Herr Selfie” is an excellent look to aim for… and will show-case your enviable talents perfectly Smile

 “Ripply Icy Wolfie Herr Selfie” But for those who aspire only to the highly technical Wolfie Herr Selfie Camera or the 3-D Wolfie Printer, both of which, as everybody knows, have infuriating minds of their own and do whatsoever they please to a Wolfie Herr Selfie, exactly when they please, there is only one option left open when all else fails…Pot luck!!

Very, very occasionally, usually at the time of Full Moon when the skies are clear and a certain Full Moon madness is reigning, a lovely, “Ripply Icy Wolfie Herr Selfie” can occur, embracing the soft blending of moonlight over snow on the Ice-world of Europa, where the voice of the alien Icewolves howls the haunting song of the stars, echoing timelessly across the planetscape of their frozen world of Ice. Smile

You Won’t See This In Sochi! Final Tails Of 2014 Galactic Olympics   51 comments

You Won’t See This in Sochi!!

The Final Tails of Valhalla Basin Winter Galactic Olympics

Running alongside the renowned cosmic Galactic Winter Olympics are the equally well renowned Space Galactic Dog Trials. The enthusiastic and well-informed interstellar tourist will undoubtedly have ensured their place at the Opening Ceremony on Io –the fiery, sulphuric neighbour of Europa’s Icewolves glittering world of ice; home to the magnificent and mysterious Firewolves of Io, creatures as wild and fiery as the stunning sulphur volcanoes erupting in explosive abandon throughout their moon-world, their presence at the trials opening ceremony guaranteed a truly alien dimension to this un-missable cosmic K9 event.

europa_solarsystem.nasa.gov_Credit_NASA_JPL-Caltechnewhorizons_jupiter_iosolarsystem_astro.cornell.eduIo_Jup_RaPWolf

Entertainment abounds at this time of the Galactic Winter Olympics both for the 2-legged thrill seeker and also for the 4-legged K9 variety:

MercuryMercury Tandoori Chicken Tracking Trials

Great for Galactic Olympic tourists who enjoy basking in a slightly warmer environment than is offered by the outer planets of the galaxy where the Winter Olympics are taking place.

  1. K9 Cross-country Tandoori Chicken Tracking – across the Van Eyck Formation (Mountain ranges on Mercury).
  2. Morning jogging –lose 50-60lbs, watch the awesome double sunrises and relax in the evenings and lay down to get great views of the other planets.
  3. Mercury’s Polar Ice Caps which offer wonderfully strange and bizarre views to thrill and tantalise the senses of even the most hardened galactic tourist.
  4. Roast marsh mallows whenever you like without worrying about nasty gases polluting the environment.

Warning!

Don’t forget the sunglasses and shorts!! And definitely don’t forget the sunscreen! Factor 1000000!

Martian chicken_Universe Today_Credit-SDOVenus Piri Piri Chicken Pursuit Events

Arrive here at light speed – about 2 minutes. Arrive by snail transport – 5 months – from Earth/Sochi. But no need to worry about sunburn – sun blocked out by clouds.

  1. 1. Lose weight in the natural outdoor saunas (460 degrees – hottest in Solar System – 40,000,00m closer to the sun).
  2. 2. Shower in the rain afterwards or for the more adventurous enjoy a Venutian mud bath.
  3. 3. Visit the mind bogglingly huge Maxwell Montes volcanoes – a Venutian star attraction for any galactic tourist, and pop down to Maat Mons’s frozen lava rivers.
  4. 4. Hi speed cooking – dinner will be cooked in less than one minute so no need to pack the microwave.

Warning!

Don’t forget the 100000 bottles of sunscreen factor and the 100+ towels! You and your equipment will erode very quickly in Venus’s yellow skied, highly toxic, corrosive atmosphere 🙂 So cover everything up well and check it’s safety certified and insured!

Mars ice cap_rutgersprep.orgMars_Chasma Boreale_N Polar Ice Cap_themis.asu.edu

Mars Dog Agility-Black Wolves of Mars

                                                           Weaving Collie_Photo credit_animalwatchers.comBoxer_agility_tunnel_Photo by Donn Dobkin-Just a Moment Photography_Wiki  GNU Free Documentation License

1. Labyrinthis Noctis- The Labyrinth of the Night-(Maze-like channels on Mars) 

  • Martian Dog Agility Trials 

2. Visiting Mars for the Martian gemstone medal ceremonies if you’re not too dazzled by the glinting opals you may be lucky enough to spot the Black Wolves of Mars!

Callisto_Credit_nssdc.gsfc.nasa.govIditarod Sled Dog Race_Photo Credit(AP Photo-Al Grillo)_newsminer.comCallisto – Valhalla Basin K9-Curling with Liver Cake

  1. Or if you prefer the views there, hop across to the Martian Polar Caps for the K9 Curling Finals.
  2. K9Flyball – High energy, high speed K9 sport – fun for all the family!
  3. Sled Dog Racing across Valhalla Basin and Asgard Crater
  4. Flying Disk dog Sports – Eye-catching, spectacular displays of teamwork and athletics.

 

Titan_Credit NASA JPL Space Science InstituteSaturn-titanSaturn’s Moon Titan – The Big Splash!

Saturn’s mysterious frozen, cloud covered world where methane acts like water on Earth and methane oceans lap its shores.

 Dock Jumping_en.wikipedia.org 1. K9Dock Jumping/Diving– The big splash! Dogs race down dock, fly off the end and into the methane oceans. Distance is the goal.

saturn-compositeSaturn’s rings – Heelwork to Music

  1. Freestyle and Heelwork to music.
  2. Ring rock hopping in this beautiful and exotic zero-gravity playground.
  3. Ring walking in zero gravity.

enceladus_NASA JPL Space Science InstituteEncaladus – Dog Scootering for Kids

Saturn’s bright, white, low gravity, snowy moon with erupting ice plumes shooting into the sky – floats back to the surface as snow.

1. Dog Scootering behind dogs for kids amongst the erupting ice geysers.Laufhundesport_Credit www.canicross.at

2. Great hop scotch attraction so long as no one lands too hard and disappears down an ice crevasse!

Uranus’s Moon Miranda – Bison Staring Stand-Offs

20120905_uranus_voyager_C2709128_rgb_150pct_lakdawalla_f537Miranda_Close up_Credit moon.nasa.govThe star attraction of the Uranian system with its very own Grand Prix racetrack features in the form of a variety of concentric “coronae” ranging from smooth curving corners, to sudden sharp turns – great work-out for Canicross fans.

  1. 1. Canicross-dog powered running where the dog takes you for a run attached by harness and shock absorbing line.
  2.                   1303320624_canicross_2011_033
  3. 2. Skijoring -Skiing behind dogs on the huge cliffs towering far into the Mirandian sky.

                                                 Bison_Credit bloximages3. Bison Staring Stand-offs; low gravity float-downs when you lose your staring stand-off and they butt you off the edge of a cliff, have their own unique thrills – and the views are cosmic! And the kids will love it!

 

Valhalla Basin Winter Galactic Olympics–Do YOU Have What It Takes?!!   23 comments

Valhalla Basin Winter Galactic Olympics Latest! (Events and Locations)

Galactic Olympic Wannabe?? Do You Have What It Takes?!!!

 

                                 Moons of the Solar System_Image Credit NASAsaturn-compositesolarsystem_astro.cornell.edu

As any self-respecting Galactic Olympic enthusiast will be very happily well aware, the 2014 Valhalla Basin Galactic Olympics is now in full swing. Meteoritic medals are being won, and a variety of arms and legs are in danger of being broken, along with a smattering of other appendages as brave and heroic Galactic athletes take breath-taking risks hurtling down icy bob sleigh runs and mind-blowing ski slopes, snowboarding at break-neck speeds on tiny little “tea trays.” 😉 and spinning gracefully around zero-gravity ice rinks to name but a few.

Naturally the hard-core Galactic Olympic enthusiast will have been overcome by an all-consuming desire to participate in these exciting, heart-stopping winter sports events…so where can you show off your finely honed skills?!! And what’s on offer for you excitable Galactic Olympian wannabes?!!! Look no further for all you need to know about the Galactic Winter Olympic Events and Locations!

Callisto_Credit_nssdc.gsfc.nasa.govCallsito [Jupiter’s Moon] – Valhalla Basin

Ice Events (Figure Skating, Ice Dancing and Short Track Speed Skating)

  • Ice skating on the frosty bright-floored 360 km wide central basin.
  • Snowboarding and hi-speed skating around the 8+ concentric frozen mountainous ridges

Asgard Crater

Nordic Events (X-country skiing and Ski Jumping) Snowboarding events

  • X-country skiing around the multi ring structure
  • Snowboarding jumps and ski jumping from the centrally-situated domed Doh impact crater dominating Asgard.
  • The uneven terrain and tenuous CO2 atmosphere allows athletes to pull off some very impressive stunts during these events!

Europa [Jupiter’s Moon]:

europa_solarsystem.nasa.gov_Credit_NASA_JPL-Caltech europa1_Credit apod.nasa.govSkiing Events (Alpine and Freestyle) Nordic Event (Ski Jumping)

It should also be noted that skiing on Europa will involve:

  • Slower acceleration when skiing downhill (Gravity compared to Earth’s, Mars <1/3, Europa <1/7, Moon 1/6)
  • Bigger skis maybe necessary to help with turning
  • Ski jumping will require longer ramps as there is less acceleration – no air resistance. No air at all in fact!
  • Crashes and falls will not lead to lost marks as you will be dead!!!

Snowboarding:

  • Naturally occurring ½ pipes stretching for 100s miles (caused by gravitational tides changing the shape of the surface)
  • Tenuous atmosphere means no aerodynamic drag so snowboarders can stand tall going downhill, not the usual crouch. Steering is also easier.

Ice Event: Curling:

  • Europa is ideal for this activity having the smoothest surface in the solar system.

WARNING!!

Radiation is very harsh on Europa; the result of dangerous belts of radiation from Jupiter’s planetary magnetosphere – the largest and most powerful in the Solar System. So don’t forget your radiation suit and iodine tablets! And remember! Snowboarding/skiing in lead lined radiation suits will provide an excellent muscle workout!

Martian Ice Caps:

Skiing Events and Ice Events: Bob sledding, Ice Hockey

                             Mars ice cap_rutgersprep.orgMars_Chasma Boreale_N Polar Ice Cap_themis.asu.edu

WARNING!!

Don’t forget your scarf! And remember Mar’s atmosphere is very thin so you don’t get any protection from the Sun’s energy bursts. You also don’t get to enjoy snowball fights on the Ice Caps – the atmosphere’s too weak and cold meaning snowballs can’t /hold together like they’re supposed to. And no! You can’t throw the ice; it’s very, very bad form!

A Martian Ice Cap sounds like the ideal skating rink but it is actually not that great for skating being cold and dark and snowing carbon dioxide. In fact it is probably better suited to Roller Skating!

Tethys [Saturn’s Moon] : Ithaca Chasm and Odysseus Crater:

Tethys_JPL_map_Credit celestialmotherlode.nettethys-ithaca-chasmaAll Nordic Events: X-country skiing and Biathlon

  • Great valley named after Greek Island Ithaca and the country ruled by Odysseus in mythology.
  • 100 km wide, 3-5 km deep and 2000km long running ¾ of the way round the circumference making it one of the longest valleys in the Solar System.
  • Runs approximately concentric with the massive Odysseus Crater, located on the opposite side of Tethys
  • Giant Impact Crater – Odysseus 400 km diameter is almost 2/5 of the whole of Tethys.

WARNING!!

Cold, airless and heavily cratered world! Surface temperature -187 degrees, very icy, and very reflective. Don’t forget the woolly scarf, thermal undies and snow/sun-glasses!!

Triton [Neptune’s Moon]:

triton-cryovolcanos_Credit wanderingspace.netNordic Combi: Ski Jumping, X-Country Skiing, and Snowboarding

  • Relatively flat, sparsely cratered surface with extensive ridges, troughs, furrows, plateaus and valleys, and icy, smooth volcanic plains
    • Perfect for X-Country Skiing.
  • Highly reflective polar caps consisting of nitrogen and methane.
    • A great spot to catch Galactic Olympic Ski Jumping!
  • Mounds and round pits formed by icy lava flows; long double ridges of ice with troughs in the middle.
    • Particularly well suited to Cosmic Snowboarding events.

WARNING!!

To aid launch jumping Nitrogen-gas heated shoes for generating explosive puffs of gas when feet touch the ground, are strongly recommended for all competitors.

Crashing is not recommended!!

Sources:

space.com

solar system.nasa.gov